Frequently asked questions about the programs, initiatives and services offered by PPAG.
The primary sign of menstruation is bleeding from the vagina. Additional symptoms include:
The menstrual cycle, which is counted from the first day of one period to the first day of the next, isn’t the same for every woman. Menstrual flow might occur every 21 to 35 days and last two to seven days. However, there could be a problem if it flows for less than 2 days or for more than 7 days.
Each month, mark the first day of your period on a calendar or in a period-tracking app. The number of days between the first day of consecutive periods is the length of your menstrual cycle. To be on the safe side, document this for at least three months.
When you know your average menstrual cycle length, you can work out when you ovulate. Ovulation happens about 14 days before your period starts. If your average menstrual cycle is 28 days, you ovulate around day 14, and your most fertile days are days 12, 13, and 14.
Tips that may help with period cramps
Menstrual hygiene refers to the practices or steps taken to maintain oneself before, during, and after menstruation by having access to menstrual hygiene products.
These hygiene practices can help you stay healthy and comfortable during your period:
Bath twice a day
Pads, tampons, period
underwear, and cups let you go about your normal life during your period, without getting blood on your clothes or sheets. Tampons and cups go inside your vagina, pads are worn in your underwear, and you can wear period underwear instead of regular underwear on the days you have your period.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), family planning is defined as “the ability of individuals and couples to anticipate and attain their desired number of children and the spacing and timing of their births’’.
Examples include male and female condoms, as well as the diaphragm, cervical cap, and contraceptive sponge. Short-acting hormonal methods Examples include birth control pills as well as the vaginal ring (NuvaRing), skin patch (Xulane), and contraceptive injection (Depo-Provera).
One might experience one or more of these symptoms:
Success and failure rates of birth control pills depend on their usage, and then they’re about 91 percent effective. Both combined oral contraceptives and progestin-only pills (also known as the mini pill) have a typical failure rate of 9 percent.
All family planning methods are best depending on how your body reacts to it.
Contraceptives that are more than 99% effective:
The use of illegal drugs or the use of prescription or over-the-counter drugs for purposes other than those for which they are meant to be used, or in excessive amounts.
Using drugs or alcohol can cause dehydration-induced seizures and damage immune systems. This increases susceptibility to infection and further complications, psychotic behavior, and serious cardiovascular conditions, including heart attacks and collapsed veins.
Factors such as peer pressure, physical and sexual abuse, early exposure to drugs, stress, and parental guidance can greatly affect a person’s likelihood of drug use and addiction. Development, Genetic, and environmental factors interact with critical developmental stages in a person’s life to affect addiction risk.
While there is no single or guaranteed way to prevent someone from abusing drugs or alcohol, there are things that everyone can do.
Here are the top five ways to prevent substance abuse:
i. Understand how substance abuse develops. Substance abuse starts by:
ii. Stay away from temptation and peer pressure. Avoid friends and family members who pressure you to use substances in order to develop healthy friendships and relationships.
iii. Seek treatment for mental illnesses. Substance abuse and mental illness frequently coexist. If you are suffering from a mental illness like anxiety, depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder, you should seek professional assistance from a licensed therapist or counselor. A professional will teach you healthy coping skills to help you manage your symptoms without resorting to drugs or alcohol.
iv. Investigate the risk factors. Examine your family history of mental illness and addiction; several studies have shown that this disease runs in families but can be avoided. The more you understand your biological, environmental, and physical risk factors, the more likely it is that you will be able to overcome them.
v. Maintain a healthy sense of balance in your life. When something in their lives is missing or not working, many people turn to drugs and alcohol. Stress management skills can assist you in overcoming these life stressors and living a balanced and healthy life. Set goals and dreams for the future. These will assist you in focusing on what you want and in realizing that drugs and alcohol will simply get in your way and prevent you from achieving your goals.
Commonly used drug charts
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks cells that help the body fight infection, making a person more vulnerable to other infections and diseases.
AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) is the late stage of HIV infection that occurs when the body’s immune system is badly damaged because of the virus.
HIV is transmitted through contact with a person’s bodily fluids, most commonly during unprotected sex (sex without a condom or HIV medicine to prevent or treat HIV) or by sharing injection drug equipment.
You can only get HIV if you come into direct contact with certain body fluids from an HIV-positive person with a detectable viral load. These fluids are as follows:
The only sure way to know if you have HIV is to get tested. Symptoms alone will not tell you if you have HIV.
Knowing your HIV status provides you with powerful information that allows you to act to keep yourself and your partner(s) healthy.
Also, HIV manifests itself in a variety of ways. The symptoms will not be the same for everyone. It is dependent on the individual and the stage of the disease.
The three stages of HIV and some of the symptoms people may experience are listed below.
Stage 1: Acute HIV Infection
Approximately two-thirds of people will develop a flu-like illness within 2 to 4 weeks of HIV infection. This is the body’s normal reaction to HIV infection.
Among the flu-like symptoms are:
These symptoms can last for several days to several weeks. However, some people have no symptoms at all during the early stages of HIV.
If you have any of these symptoms, don’t assume you have HIV. They may resemble those caused by other diseases. However, if you believe you have been exposed to HIV, you should get tested.
Stage 2: Clinical Latency
The virus is still multiplying at this stage, but at a very low level. At this stage, people may not feel ill or exhibit any symptoms. This is also known as chronic HIV infection.
Without HIV treatment, people can remain in this stage for 10 to 15 years, though some people progress faster.
You can live a long and healthy life if you take your HIV medication exactly as prescribed and achieve and maintain an undetectable viral load. You will not transmit HIV to your HIV-negative partners through sex.
However, if your viral load is detectable, you can transmit HIV even if you have no symptoms. It is critical to visit your doctor on a regular basis to have your viral load checked.
Stage 3: AIDS
If you have HIV and are not receiving HIV treatment, the virus will eventually weaken your immune system, leading to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).
This is the most advanced stage of HIV infection.
AIDS symptoms can include:
You have the option of abstaining from sex, never sharing needles, and using condoms correctly every time you have sex. You may also be able to use HIV prevention medications such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP).
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections transmitted through sexual contact and caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites.
The most common STIs are:
Factors that may increase that risk include:
STIs can have a range of signs and symptoms, including no symptoms. That’s why they may go unnoticed until complications occur or a partner is diagnosed.
Signs and symptoms that might indicate an STI include:
Symptoms and signs may appear a few days after exposure. However, depending on the organism causing the STI, it could take years before you notice any symptoms.